When very important fixes are made to -current, they are backported into the two supported -stable branches.
Every six months, -current is tagged and becomes the next -release: a frozen point in the history of the source tree.
In the above illustration, the vertical dotted lines denote bug fixes being incorporated into the -stable branches.,------o-----------o----X 5.6 Stable | . . | . ,------o---------o----X 5.7 Stable | . | . . | . | . ,----o----------o--> 5.8 Stable | . | . | . . | . | . | . ,-----o--> 5.9 Stable | . | . | . | . | . | . | . | . -->5.6Rel----->5.7Rel----->5.8Rel----->5.9Rel----> Current Time --->
Further thoughts on the three flavors are here.
It is possible that you may uncover bugs in snapshots. This is one of the reasons why they are built and distributed. If you find a bug in a snapshot, make sure it is reported.
If you desire to run -current, a recent snapshot is usually all you need. Upgrading to a snapshot is the starting point before building -current from source.
Details can be found on the following -current page.
On fast platforms, several snapshots may be released in one day. On slower platforms, it may take a week or more to build a snapshot. Providing tags or markers in the source tree for each snapshot would be quite impractical.
|You are at||Goal||Binary upgrade to||then ...|
|Old -release||New release||Newest release||Done!|
|-release||-stable||Newest release||Fetch & build -stable|
|Old -stable||-stable||Newest release||Fetch & build -stable|
|-release||-current||Latest snapshot||(optional) Fetch & build -current|
|Old -current||-current||Latest snapshot||(optional) Fetch & build -current|
It is recommended that you install the binary sets by using the (U)pgrade option of the install media. If that is not possible, you can also unpack the binary sets as described in the upgrade instructions of the release.
First, you must cvs checkout the source tree. After that, you maintain the tree by running cvs update to pull updated files to your local tree.
An introduction to cvs(1) and detailed instructions for fetching the source trees are on the Anonymous CVS page. If you are new to using cvs(1), you may also want to read the CVS tips below.
Since they're not part of the base install, you must create the directories and set their permissions manually to make use of the wsrc group:# user mod -G wsrc exampleuser
# cd /usr # mkdir -p xenocara ports # chgrp wsrc xenocara ports # chmod 775 xenocara ports
To checkout a -current src tree, you can use the following:
Once you have a tree, you can update it at a later time:$ cd /usr $ export CVSROOTemail@example.com:/cvs $ cvs -d$CVSROOT checkout -P src
If you want them, you can fetch the xenocara and ports trees with$ cd /usr/src $ export CVSROOTfirstname.lastname@example.org:/cvs $ cvs -d$CVSROOT up -Pd
As all parts of OpenBSD must be kept in sync, all trees you use should be checked out and updated at the same time.$ cvs -d$CVSROOT checkout -P xenocara ports
and to update, issue$ cd /usr $ export CVSROOTemail@example.com:/cvs $ cvs -d$CVSROOT checkout -rOPENBSD_5_9 -P src xenocara ports
and similarly for /usr/xenocara and /usr/ports.$ cd /usr/src $ cvs -q up -rOPENBSD_5_9 -Pd
If you are building -current, review changes and special build instructions listed in current.html.
Follow the detailed instructions in release(8).
The instructions on making a release are in release(8). The release process uses the binaries created in the /usr/obj directory in the building process above.
Note: if you wish to distribute the resultant file sets by HTTP for use by the upgrade or install scripts, you will need to add an index.txt file that contains the list of all the files in your newly created release.
# ls -nT > index.txt
To simplify life for OpenBSD users, a meta-build called Xenocara was developed. This system converts X back into one big tree to be built in one process. As an added bonus, this build process is much more similar to the build process used by the rest of OpenBSD than the previous versions were.
The official instructions for building X exist in the xenocara/README file and in step 5 of release(8).
Most problems are usually one of the following:
$ cd /usr/src $ find . -type l -name obj | xargs rm $ make cleandir $ rm -rf /usr/obj/* $ make obj
You will probably find it best to repair or replace the components that are causing trouble, as problems may show themselves in other ways in the future.
For much more information, see the Sig11 FAQ.
...than to remove the contents of the directory with rm.# umount /usr/obj # newfs YourObjPartition # mount /usr/obj
When the developers bring up support for a new platform, one of the first big tests is a native-build. Building the system from source puts considerable load on the OS and machine, and does a very good job of testing how well the system really works. For this reason, OpenBSD does all the build process on the platform the build is being used for.
OpenBSD kernel generation is controlled by configuration files, which are located in the /usr/src/sys/arch/<arch>/conf/ directory by default. All architectures have a file, GENERIC, which is used to generate the standard OpenBSD kernel for that platform. There may also be other configuration files which are used to create kernels with different focuses, for example, for minimal RAM, diskless workstations, etc.
The configuration file is processed by config(8), which creates and populates a compilation directory in ../compile, on a typical installation, that would be in /usr/src/sys/arch/<arch>/compile/. config(8) also creates a Makefile, and other files required to successfully build the kernel.
Kernel configuration options are options that you add to your kernel configuration that place certain features into your kernel. This allows you to have exactly the support you want, without having support for unneeded devices. There are a multitude of options that allow you to customize your kernel. Here we will go over only some of them, those that are most commonly used. Check the options(4) man page for a complete list of options. As these change from time to time, you should make sure you use a man page for the same version of OpenBSD you are building. You can also check the example configuration files that are available for your architecture.
Do not add, remove, or change options in your kernel unless you actually have a reason to do so! Do not edit the GENERIC configuration file!! The only kernel configuration which is supported by the OpenBSD team is the GENERIC kernel, the combination of the options in /usr/src/sys/arch/<arch>/conf/GENERIC and /usr/src/sys/conf/GENERIC as shipped by the OpenBSD team (i.e., NOT edited). Reporting a problem on a customized kernel will almost always result in you being told to try to reproduce the problem with a GENERIC kernel. Not all options are compatible with each other, and many options are required for the system to work. There is no guarantee that a custom-configured kernel can be built. There is also no guarantee that a custom-configured kernel will actually run, even if it compiles properly.
You can see all the platform-specific configuration files in the src/sys/arch directory. As an example, the files for an amd64 kernel would be in src/sys/arch/amd64/conf.
Look closely at these files and you will notice a line near the top similar to:
This means that it is referencing another configuration file, one that stores platform-independent options. When creating your kernel configuration, be sure to look through sys/conf/GENERIC.include "../../../conf/GENERIC"
Kernel configuration options should be placed in your kernel configuration file in the format of:
For example, to place option "DEBUG" in the kernel, add a line like this:option name=value
Options in the OpenBSD kernel are translated into compiler preprocessor options, therefore an option like DEBUG would have the source compiled with option -DDEBUG, which is equivalent to doing a #define DEBUG throughout the kernel.option DEBUG
Sometimes, you may wish to disable an option that is already defined, typically in the src/sys/conf/GENERIC file. While you could modify a copy of that file, a better choice would be to use the rmoption statement. For example, if you really wanted to disable the in-kernel debugger (not recommended!), you would add a line such as:
in your kernel configuration file. option DDB is defined in src/sys/conf/GENERIC, but the above rmoption line deactivates it.rmoption DDB
Once again, please see options(4) for more information about the specifics of these options. Also note that many of the options also have their own manual pages -- always read everything available about an option before adding or removing it from your kernel.
The first method is to create a "wrapper" file that "includes" the standard GENERIC kernel and any options you need that aren't in GENERIC. In this case, our wrapper file looks like this:
The two lines regarding the boca(4) card are copied from the commented out lines in GENERIC, with the IRQ adjusted as needed. The advantage to using this "wrapper" file is any unrelated changes in GENERIC are updated automatically with any other source code update. The disadvantage is one can not remove devices (though in general, that's a bad idea, anyway).include "arch/i386/conf/GENERIC" boca0 at isa? port 0x100 irq 10 # BOCA 8-port serial cards com* at boca? slave ?
The other way to generate a custom kernel is to make a copy of the standard GENERIC config file, giving it another name, then edit as needed. The disadvantage to this method is that later updates to the GENERIC configuration file have to be merged into your copy, or you have to remake your configuration file.
In either event, after making your custom kernel configuration file, use config(8) and make the kernel as documented above.
Full instructions for creating your own custom kernel are in the config(8) man page.
Most of this document can be found in the man page boot_config(8).
To boot into the User Kernel Config, or UKC, use the -c option at boot time.
Or whichever kernel it is you want to boot. Doing this will bring up a UKC prompt. From here you can issue commands directly to the kernel specifying devices you want to change or disable or even enable.boot> boot hd0a:/bsd -c
Here is a list of common commands in the UKC.
Once you have your kernel configured, use quit or exit and continue booting. After doing so, you should make the change permanent in your kernel image, as described in Using config(8) to change your kernel.
The following example shows the disabling of the ep* devices in the kernel. For safety's sake, you must use the -o option which writes the changes out to the file specified. For example: config -e -o bsd.new /bsd will write the changes to bsd.new. The example doesn't use the -o option, therefore changes are just ignored and not written back to the kernel binary. For more information pertaining to error and warning messages, read the config(8) man page.
In the above example, all ep devices are disabled in the kernel and will not be probed. In some situations where you have used the UKC during boot, via boot -c, you will need these changes to be written out permanently. To do this you need to use the -u option. In the following example, the computer was booted into the UKC and the wi(4) device was disabled. Since changes made with boot -c are NOT permanent, these changes must be written out. This example writes the changes made from boot -c into a new kernel binary: bsd.new.# config -e /bsd [...] ukc> ? help Command help list add dev Add a device base 8|10|16 Base on large numbers change devno|dev Change device disable attr val|devno|dev Disable device enable attr val|devno|dev Enable device find devno|dev Find device list List configuration lines count # of lines per page show [attr [val]] Show attribute exit Exit, without saving changes quit Quit, saving current changes timezone [mins [dst]] Show/change timezone bufcachepercent [number] Show/change BUFCACHEPERCENT nkmempg [number] Show/change NKMEMPAGES ukc> list 0 video* at uvideo* flags 0x0 1 audio* at uaudio*|sb0|sb*|gus0|pas0|ess*|wss0|wss*|ym*|eap*|envy*|eso*|sv*|n eo*|cmpci*|clcs*|clct*|auacer*|auglx*|auich*|auixp*|autri*|auvia*|azalia*|fms*|m aestro*|esa*|yds*|emu* flags 0x0 2 midi* at umidi*|sb0|sb*|ym*|mpu*|mpu*|autri*|eap*|envy* flags 0x0 3 drm* at inteldrm*|radeondrm* flags 0x0 4 inteldrm* at vga0|vga* flags 0x0 5 radeondrm* at vga0|vga* flags 0x0 6 radio* at udsbr*|bktr0|fms* flags 0x0 7 vscsi0 at root flags 0x0 8 softraid0 at root flags 0x0 9 nsphy* at url*|udav*|mos*|axe*|aue*|xe*|ef*|hme*|lii*|bce*|ale*|alc*|age*|jm e*|et*|nfe*|stge*|vge*|bnx*|bge*|lge*|nge*|msk*|sk*|ste*|se*|sis*|wb*|tl*|vte*|v r*|pcn*|sf*|ti*|gem*|ne0|ne1|ne2|ne*|ne*|ne*|epic*|sm0|sm*|dc*|dc*|re*|re*|rl*|r l*|mtd*|fxp*|fxp*|xl*|xl*|ep0|ep*|ep*|ep*|ep*|ep* phy -1 flags 0x0 10 nsphyter* at url*|udav*|mos*|axe*|aue*|xe*|ef*|hme*|lii*|bce*|ale*|alc*|age* |jme*|et*|nfe*|stge*|vge*|bnx*|bge*|lge*|nge*|msk*|sk*|ste*|se*|sis*|wb*|tl*|vte *|vr*|pcn*|sf*|ti*|gem*|ne0|ne1|ne2|ne*|ne*|ne*|epic*|sm0|sm*|dc*|dc*|re*|re*|rl *|rl*|mtd*|fxp*|fxp*|xl*|xl*|ep0|ep*|ep*|ep*|ep*|ep* phy -1 flags 0x0 [...snip...] ukc> disable ep 98 ep* disabled 99 ep* disabled 301 ep0 disabled 302 ep* disabled 303 ep* disabled 360 ep* disabled ukc> quit not forced
# config -e -u -o bsd.new /bsd [...] Processing history... 167 wi* disabled 168 wi* disabled 443 wi* disabled Enter 'help' for information ukc> quit
Now you will be given extremely verbose output upon boot.UKC> verbose autoconf verbose enabled UKC> quit
In fact, as our hope is to continually improve OpenBSD, the goal is that -current should be more reliable, more secure and, of course, have greater features than -stable. Put bluntly, the "best" version of OpenBSD is -current.
Most users should be running either -stable or -release. That being said, many people do run -current on production systems, and it is important that people do so to identify bugs and test new features. However, if you don't know how to properly describe, diagnose and deal with a problem, don't tell yourself (or anyone else) that you're "helping the project" by running -current. "It didn't work!" is not a useful bug report. "The recent changes to the pciide driver broke compatibility with my Slugchip-based IDE interface, dmesg of working and broken systems follow..." might be a useful report.
There are times when "normal" users may wish to live on the cutting edge and run -current. The most common reason is that the user has a device which is not supported by -release (and thus, not -stable), or wishes to use a new feature of -current. In this case, the choice may be either -current or not using the device, and -current may be the better option. However, one should not expect hand-holding from the developers.
So, you may install a -release system from CD, then update it to -stable a few times, then upgrade it to the next release from CD, and update that a few times before upgrading it again to the following release.
You must make sure your kernel, userland (the supporting utilities and files) and ports tree are all in sync, or unpleasant things will happen.
One should also understand that the upgrade process is supported in only one direction: from older to newer, and from -stable to -current. You can not run -current (or a snapshot), then decide you are living too dangerously, and step back to -stable. You are on your own if you choose any path other than the supported option of reloading your system from scratch.
The -P option removes directories that are empty. Sometimes the names of old directories are currently used as file names.
The -d option on the update command creates new directories that may have been added to the tree since the initial checkout.
cvs -q -d firstname.lastname@example.org:/cvs diff -uNp update -Pd checkout -P rdiff -u
Note also that the CVSROOT environment variable is only used if cvs(1) would throw an error without it.
To see the changes between 5.9 and -current, use:$ cd /usr/src/etc $ cvs diff -u -rOPENBSD_5_8 -rOPENBSD_5_9
$ cd /usr/src/etc $ cvs diff -u -rOPENBSD_5_9 -rHEAD